b'APRIL 2021 APRIL 20211.2 Temporary workersTemporary skilled migrants (that is, those on theFig 3. Temporary Worker Visas: Net Overseas Arrivals,Fig 4.Student Visas: Net Overseas Arrivals, FY05-19,Fig 5. Student Visas by country of origin457/482 visa) are sponsored by businesses to meetFY05-19, Australia Australia Personstheir needs when those specific skills arent availablePersons Persons 400,000domestically. As will be outlined in more detail in80,000 140,000 350,000subsequent sections, by their very nature this group70,000 120,000 300,000naturally make a significant contribution to the60,000 100,000 250,000local economy. Whilst in Australia they are typically50,000 80,000 200,000employed, and as they are skilled workers their salary40,000 150,000is usually higher than the average. This in turn means30,000 60,000 100,000they drive domestic spending (which in turn generates20,000 40,000 50,000employment for locals). And as they are often not10,000 20,000 0eligible for all government services and supports (such0 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019as social security) they are net contributors to theFY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 China India NepalFY05Viet Nam Indonesia Hong Konggovernments budgetthey effectively help to fund theStudent Visa holders Republic of Korea Singapore Thailandservices and support payments that resident AustraliansSkilled Worker Holiday Worker Temporary Workers United States of America Taiwan Japanrely on. Source: BIS Oxford Economics/Haver Analytics Source: BIS Oxford Economics/Haver AnalyticsSource: BIS Oxford Economics/Haver AnalyticsThrough much of the mining boom, gaps in the domestic labour market were filled by temporary1.3 International students The countrys attractiveness to international students workers on the 457 visa and so their migration flowsInternational students are also considered temporaryis also impacted by its cost competitiveness, more followed the mining cycle, ramping up through thevisa holders, though a subset of these go on to obtainspecifically the value of the AUD. Through the peak 2000s and peaking in FY12 (with a slight set back overpermanent residency under the skilled migrationof the mining boom (FY10-12), when the AUD saw the GFC period) and then winding down as the miningscheme post-graduation (thus increasing the economysstrong gains, tuition fees and living costs became boom came to an end. productive potential). While the economic contributionmore expensive and resulted in a marked fall back The other main category of temporary workers isof this group differs to temporary workers it is stillin international student arrivals. Once these drivers working holiday visa holders, accounting for 60-70%significant; international students directly contributeunwound, international student inflow recovered, of temporary worker applications in the last decade.to the revenues of universities and other businessesalmost returning to its previous peak by FY19.Working holiday visa holders are young migrants whothat service students, and in many cases the student come for 12-24-month periods and supplement labouris employed whilst studying, thus increasing the shortages in seasonal work, such as construction,economys productive capacity.hospitality and agriculture. This cohort also experiencesThis category has burgeoned over the last two decades some fluctuations but is generally more stable thanand now makes up the single largest group of visa temporary skilled workers. While FY11-12 saw a strongapplications, by a large margin. China has been pick up in holiday workers, reaching around 39,000responsible for much of the growth in foreign students annually, net arrivals have fallen back since and beenover this period. More recently net inflows from China relatively steady, averaging 25,000 per year since FY14. have plateaued, but growth has continued with a rapid rise in students coming from India and Nepal. A key driver of this trend has been the economic development of Asia which has driven increases in household income migration hasand wealth, enabling many families to educate their children overseas. Australia, being a close geographical been responsible for,neighbour with reputable universities and relatively on average,large, well-established expatriate communities, has 57% of annualbenefited from this. population growth between FY00-208'